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OSWE | OSCE | OSCP | CREST | Offensive Security Consultant — All about Penetration Test, Red Team, Cloud Security, Web Application Security


Around beginning of this year, I wanted to start studying for OSWE (WEB-300) from Offensive Security to boost my web application security skills. I took the updated OSWE course that was revamped in 2020. The whole experience of taking the course and the exam were amazing. It was the most…

What is Crypter?

A crypter is a software that can encrypt, obfuscate and manipulate malware or a RAT (Remote Access Tool) tool to potentially bypass security products such as anti-viruses.

Encryption Process

For creating a simple crpyter, I will be using the following process:

  • Generate a key with random characters & seed (32 characters hard-coded…

What is Polymorphism?

The polymorphism means the ability of an object to take on many forms. In computer science, the term polymorphism also means the ability of different objects/codes to respond in a unique way to the same functionality.

Shellcode Selection

I will use the following shellcode from the Shell-Storm to demonstrate the polymorphic shellcode:

Msfvenom Shellcode Analysis

Today I will analyze the following shellcode generated by the msfvenom, specifically in linux/x86:

  • linux/x86/exec — Execute an arbitrary command
  • linux/x86/shell_bind_tcp — Listen for a connection and spawn a command shell
  • linux/x86/shell_reverse_tcp — Connect back to attacker and spawn a command shell

1) linux/x86/exec

This msfvenom will execute an arbitrary command that…

What is Encoder?

In computer systems, an encoder can be used for various purposes. For example, Base64 encodes binary data into an ASCII characters which are known to pretty much every computer system. Or one may use an encoder to mangle their own code to potentially bypass a security product such as AV…

Help was an easy difficulty Linux box. Good learning path for:

  • GraphQL Query Enumeration
  • Unauthenticated PHP File Upload (HelpDeskZ)
  • Linux Kernel Exploit

Initial Recon


# nmap -Pn --open -T4 -sV -sC -p- Nmap 7.80 ( ) at 2021-04-13 00:14 EDT
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.081s latency).
Not shown…

Json was a medium difficulty Windows box. Good learning path for:

  • JSON-based deserialization (Bearer: header)
  • JuicyPotato Exploit (SeImpersonatePrivilege)

Initial Recon


# nmap -Pn --open -sC -sV -p- -T4     STATE  SERVICE      VERSION
21/tcp open ftp…

Unattended was a medium difficulty Linux box. Good learning path for:

  • Nginx off-by-slash Attack
  • SQLi (boolean-based Blind)
  • SQLi → LFI (Abusing Existing <?php include(); ?>)
  • LFI → PHP Session Poisoning → RCE
  • Socket TTY Shell
  • Linux initrd Exploit

Initial Recon


#  nmap -Pn --open -T4 -sV -sC -p- Nmap 7.80…

Mango was a medium difficulty Linux box. Good learning path for:

  • MongoDB — NoSQL Exploit to Brute-force the passwords
  • Permissive SUID Binary Abuse (GTFobins — JJS Exploit)

Initial Recon


# nmap -Pn — open -sC -sV -p- -T4    STATE SERVICE  VERSION
22/tcp open ssh…


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